Ultrasonography: Use of Ultrasonography, Preparation & Procedure
An ultrasound scan is a testing method that records live images from the inside of your body using high-frequency sound waves. It’s classified as sonography as well. A system called a transducer turns electric current into sound waves sent into the tissues of the body. Sound waves are transmitted back to the transducer, which processes the waves into electrical signals, bouncing off surfaces in the body.
The electrical signal pattern is transformed by a computer into an image that is displayed and registered on a monitor as a digital computer image. No x-rays are used because during ultrasonography, there is no sensitivity to radiation.
The technology is similar to the sonar and radar technology used to help the military detect planes and ships. Ultrasound makes it possible for your doctor to see problems in your organs, vessels, and tissues without having to make an incision.
Why is an ultrasound carried out?
Many individuals equate pregnancy with ultrasound scans. The first glimpse of her unborn child can be given to an expectant mother through these scans. The test has several other applications, however.
When you have swelling, swelling, or other symptoms that involve an internal view of your organs, your doctor can order an ultrasound. An ultrasound can give a view of:
- Cerebral (in infants)
- Biliary Bladder
- The Liver
- About ovaries
- From the pancreas
- The Testicles
- Of the uterus
- Vessels of blood
Ultrasound is also a valuable way to guide the movements of doctors, such as biopsies, during certain surgical procedures.
Uses of Ultrasonography
Ultrasound images are collected quickly enough to display in real-time (as in a movie) the motion of organs and structures in the body. The motion of the beating heart, for instance, can be observed, also in a fetus.
Ultrasound is used efficiently to search for growths and foreign objects on the surface of the body, such as those in the thyroid gland, breasts, testicles, arms, and certain lymph nodes.
To image internal organs in the abdomen, pelvis, and shoulders, ultrasonography is used effectively. Ultrasonography of internal organs, however, requires a lot of skills when sound waves are blocked by gas (in the lungs or intestine, for example) and by bone. Sonographers are considered people who have been especially capable of performing ultrasound tests. To test the following, ultrasonography is usually used:
Heart: For example, to locate irregularities in the way the heart beats, structural abnormalities such as faulty heart valves, and irregular enlargement of the chambers or walls of the heart (echocardiography is called ultrasonography of the heart)
Blood vessels: To detect dilated and narrowed blood vessels, for instance,
Gallbladder and biliary tract: For example to find gallstones and blockages in the bile tubes.
Liver, spleen, and pancreas: For example, to detect tumors and other diseases.
Urinary tract: For example, to identify between benign tumors in the kidneys from solid masses (that may be cancer) or to detect blockages in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder, such as stones or other structural abnormalities.
Female reproductive organs: For example, for the diagnosis of vaginal, fallopian, or uterine cancers and inflammation.
Pregnancy: For example, to assess fetal growth and development and diagnose placenta abnormalities (such as misplaced placenta, called placenta previa)
Ultrasonography may also be used to direct physicians when a biopsy sample of tissue is extracted. Ultrasonography will show both the location of the biopsy instrument and the region (such as a mass) to be biopsied. Doctors can then see where the device is to be inserted and can guide it directly to its target.
The Ultrasonography Variations
It is possible to show ultrasound information in many ways:
- A-mode: As spikes (used to search the eye) on a graph
- B-mode: 2-dimensional anatomical images (used to assess the developing fetus or to assess internal organs during pregnancy)
- M-mode: continuously shown as waves to indicate moving structures (used to assess the heartbeat of the fetus or to assess heart valve disorders)
Most generally, B-mode ultrasonography is performed.
1. Ultrasonography Doppler
Doppler ultrasonography uses variations that arise as they are transmitted from a moving object (called the Doppler effect) at the frequency of sound waves. The moving points in medical imagery are red blood cells in the blood. Doppler ultrasonography can thus be used to determine
- If blood flows into vessels in the blood
- How easily it flows
- The direction in which it flows
The use of Doppler ultrasonography is
- To measure how well the heart (as part of echocardiography) functions
- Detection of blocked blood vessels, particularly in leg veins, such as deep vein thrombosis, when a blood clot blocks the veins.
- Narrowed arteries, especially the carotid arteries in the neck that carry blood to the brain, should be recognized.
2. Ultrasonography with Spectral Doppler
This technique presents data on blood flow as a graph.
It can be used to determine how much is blocked by a blood vessel.
3. Ultrasonography with Duplex Doppler
Spectral and B-mode ultrasonography are combined in this technique.
4. Ultrasonography with Color Doppler
Color is superimposed on the shades-of-gray blood flow image created by Doppler ultrasonography for this test. The color represents the direction of the flow of blood.
To indicate flow to the transducer, red can be used, and blue can be used to indicate flow away from the transducer. The color’s brightness reflects how quickly the blood is flowing. Ultrasonography with color Doppler can help determine the risk of stroke since it allows doctors to detect and measure the narrowing or blockage of the neck and head arteries.
The technique is useful for assessing individuals who have had a transient ischemic attack or stroke, and individuals who have atherosclerosis risk factors but no symptoms. Ultrasonography with color Doppler is often used to measure blood supply to internal organs and tumors.
How to make preparations for an ultrasound
The steps you will take to prepare for an ultrasound will depend on the examined area or organ. Your doctor may tell you to fast for eight to 12 hours before your ultrasound, especially if you have an abdominal exam. The sound waves can be blocked by undigested food, making it hard for the technician to get a clear image.
Be sure to inform your doctor whether you are taking any prescription medications, over-the-counter medications, or herbal supplements before the test. Trying to follow the instructions of your doctor and ask any questions you might have before the procedure is important. There are minor risks involved with an ultrasound. Ultrasounds, unlike X-rays or CT scans, do not use radiation. They are the preferred approach for evaluating a developing fetus during pregnancy for this purpose.
People may be asked to refrain from eating and drinking for several hours before the examination if certain parts of the abdomen are examined. Women may be asked to drink a significant volume of fluid to fill their bladder for inspection of the female reproductive organs.
Usually, to ensure good sound transmission, the examiner puts thick gel on the skin over the region to be tested. On the skin, a handheld transducer is mounted and rotated over the area to be measured.
The investigator inserts the transducer into the body to test those body parts, for sure, into the vagina to better image the female reproductive organs or into the anus to view the prostate gland.
Sometimes, the doctor ties the transducer to an endoscope called a viewing tube and passes it through the body. Endoscopic ultrasonography is what this technique is called. To see the heart (transesophageal echocardiography) or through the stomach to see the liver and other surrounding organs, the endoscope may be passed down the throat. Most people will immediately continue their regular activities after the test.
If you want to take these advantages with the correct guidance, you have to contact an ENDOVASCULAR EXPERT. Endovascular expert offers the best facilities for ultrasonography in Jaipur. Every answer to your questions about ultrasonography is given to you by Dr. Nikhil Bansal. To visit Dr. Nikhil Bansal(MD, PGDHHM, FVIR, FIPM), you can book an ENDOVASCULAR EXPERT appointment. He is well-experienced and has introduced multiple procedures in Rajasthan for the first time.
The goal of the endovascular expert is to relieve pain in minimal time with maximum recovery. That’s why, at numerous important conferences and seminars around the world, he has been a guest speaker. Dr. Nikhil Bansal is a well-experienced and specialized surgeon for several conditions with less treatment period and pain-free options to solve complicated vascular and non-vascular problems by minimally invasive pinhole surgery for curative or palliative treatments.
Ultrasonographic imaging focuses heavily on the sound load of different mediums. In the transmitter, the sound waves that are reflected in the detector are transformed into graphs and then into a clear 2D image. It is possible to examine the human body with this technique without the need for surgery or other procedures. Ultrasonography is recommended and used to test disease as the primary modality of diagnostic imaging. Sonography, however, is known to be highly operator dependent; additional factors that may decrease the reliability of a negative sonographic examination for appendicitis are large patient habitus and atypical appendiceal position.
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